Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Proceedings of the Eight Symposium

Electronic Imaging Symposium
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Woman, World, Dance: Ursula K. You can differ a theory module and improve your personalities. The proposed segmentation framework has achieved state-of-the-art accuracy on Herlev dataset with Zijdenbos similarity index ZSI of 0. TACAN and its chemical corner. Numerical comparisons on an external test set containing lung segmentations provided by a medical expert demonstrate that the proposed model generalizes well to new data, reaching an average In this paper, an active co-phasing and aligning synthesized aperture imaging system with three quasi-annulus-sectors segmented mirrors was analyzed. The situation as of [update] was that only a few companies continued to manufacture and service drum scanners.

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Full Paper Submission deadline 15 August [final]. Workshop Submission deadline 29 August [final]. Publishing Partner. Indexed in. Call for Papers. Join the Objective community recognition - today Community mentorship and evaluation Top indexed research activities and innovation opportunities. The effective resolution of most all consumer flatbed scanners is considerably lower than the manufactures' given optical resolution. Manufacturers often claim interpolated resolutions as high as 19, ppi; but such numbers carry little meaningful value, because the number of possible interpolated pixels is unlimited and doing so does not increase the level of captured detail.

The size of the file created increases with the square of the resolution; doubling the resolution quadruples the file size. A resolution must be chosen that is within the capabilities of the equipment, preserves sufficient detail, and does not produce a file of excessive size. The file size can be reduced for a given resolution by using "lossy" compression methods such as JPEG , at some cost in quality. If the best possible quality is required lossless compression should be used; reduced-quality files of smaller size can be produced from such an image when required e.

Purity can be diminished by scanner noise, optical flare, poor analog to digital conversion, scratches, dust, Newton's rings , out of focus sensors, improper scanner operation, and poor software. Drum scanners are said to produce the purest digital representations of the film, followed by high end film scanners that use the larger Kodak Tri-Linear sensors. The third important parameter for a scanner is its density range Dynamic Range or Drange see Densitometry.

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A high density range means that the scanner is able to record shadow details and brightness details in one scan. Density of film is measured on a base 10 log scale and varies between 0. The density range of negative film is up to 3. Dmax will be the densest on slide film for shadows, and densest on negative film for highlights. Some slide films can have a Dmax close to 4. Consumer-level flatbed photo scanners have a dynamic range in the 2. Color film compresses its 12 stops of a possible 16 stops film latitude into just 2.

Kodak Vision 3 has 18 stops. So, color negative film scans the easiest of all film types on the widest range of scanners. Because traditional black-and-white film retains the image creating silver after processing, density range can be almost twice that of color film. This makes scanning traditional black-and-white film more difficult and requires a scanner with at least a 3.

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High-end photo lab flatbed scanners can reach a dynamic range of 3. Dedicated film scanners [14] have a dynamic range between 3. By combining full-color imagery with 3D models, modern hand-held scanners are able to completely reproduce objects electronically. The addition of 3D color printers enables accurate miniaturization of these objects, with applications across many industries and professions. For scanner apps, the scan quality is highly dependent on the quality of the phone camera and on the framing chosen by the user of the app.

Scans must virtually always be transferred from the scanner to a computer or information storage system for further processing or storage.

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There are two basic issues: 1 how the scanner is physically connected to the computer and 2 how the application retrieves the information from the scanner. The file size of a scan can be up to about megabytes for a DPI 23 x 28 cm 9"x11" slightly larger than A4 paper uncompressed bit image. Scanned files must be transferred and stored.

Scanners can generate this volume of data in a matter of seconds, making a fast connection desirable. Scanners communicate to their host computer using one of the following physical interfaces, listing roughly from slow to fast:. During the early s professional flatbed scanners were available over a local computer network. This proved useful to publishers, print shops, etc. This functionality largely fell out of use as the cost of flatbed scanners reduced enough to make sharing unnecessary.

From all-in-one multi-purpose devices became available which were suitable for both small offices and consumers, with printing, scanning, copying, and fax capability in a single apparatus which can be made available to all members of a workgroup. Battery-powered portable scanners store scans on internal memory; they can later be transferred to a computer either by direct connection, typically USB, or in some cases a memory card may be removed from the scanner and plugged into the computer.

There are many different scanners, and many of those scanners use different protocols. In order to simplify applications programming, some Applications programming interfaces "API" were developed. The API presents a uniform interface to the scanner. This means that the application does not need to know the specific details of the scanner in order to access it directly. In practice, there are often problems with an application communicating with a scanner.

Either the application or the scanner manufacturer or both may have faults in their implementation of the API. Typically, the API is implemented as a dynamically linked library. The manufacturer's part of the API is commonly called a device driver , but that designation is not strictly accurate: the API does not run in kernel mode and does not directly access the device. Rather the scanner API library translates application requests into hardware requests.

This allows batch scans and transparent network access without any special support from the device driver.

TWAIN is used by most scanners. Originally used for low-end and home-use equipment, it is now widely used for large-volume scanning.

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Although no software beyond a scanning utility is a feature of any scanner, many scanners come bundled with software. Typically, in addition to the scanning utility, some type of image-editing application such as Adobe Photoshop , and optical character recognition OCR software are supplied. OCR software converts graphical images of text into standard text that can be edited using common word-processing and text-editing software; accuracy is rarely perfect.

Some scanners, especially those designed for scanning printed documents, only work in black-and-white but most modern scanners work in color. For the latter, the scanned result is a non-compressed RGB image, which can be transferred to a computer's memory. The color output of different scanners is not the same due to the spectral response of their sensing elements, the nature of their light source and the correction applied by the scanning software.

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While most image sensors have a linear response, the output values are usually gamma compressed. Some scanners compress and clean up the image using embedded firmware.

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Once on the computer, the image can be processed with a raster graphics program such as Adobe Photoshop or the GIMP and saved on a storage device such as a hard disk. Images are usually stored on a hard disk.


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Optical character recognition OCR software allows a scanned image of text to be converted into editable text with reasonable accuracy, so long as the text is cleanly printed and in a typeface and size that can be read by the software. OCR capability may be integrated into the scanning software, or the scanned image file can be processed with a separate OCR program.

Document imaging requirements differ from those of image scanning. These requirements include scanning speed, automated paper feed, and the ability to automatically scan both the front and the back of a document. On the other hand, image scanning typically requires the ability to handle fragile and or three dimensional objects as well as scan at a much higher resolution.

Document scanners have document feeders , usually larger than those sometimes found on copiers or all-purpose scanners. Scans are made at high speed, from 20 up to [16] or [17] pages per minute, often in grayscale, although many scanners support color. Many scanners can scan both sides of double-sided originals duplex operation. Sophisticated document scanners have firmware or software that cleans up scans of text as they are produced, eliminating accidental marks and sharpening type; this would be unacceptable for photographic work, where marks cannot reliably be distinguished from desired fine detail.

Files created are compressed as they are made. The resolution used is usually from to dpi , although the hardware may be capable of [17] or higher resolution; this produces images of text good enough to read and for optical character recognition OCR , without the higher demands on storage space required by higher-resolution images. Document scans are often processed using OCR technology to create editable and searchable files.

Lossy JPEG compression, which is very efficient for pictures, is undesirable for text documents, as slanted straight edges take on a jagged appearance, and solid black or other color text on a light background compresses well with lossless compression formats. While paper feeding and scanning can be done automatically and quickly, preparation and indexing are necessary and require much work by humans.

Preparation involves manually inspecting the papers to be scanned and making sure that they are in order, unfolded, without staples or anything else that might jam the scanner. Indexing involves associating relevant keywords to files so that they can be retrieved by content. This process can sometimes be automated to some extent, but it often requires manual labour performed by data-entry clerks. One common practice is the use of barcode -recognition technology: during preparation, barcode sheets with folder names or index information are inserted into the document files, folders, and document groups.